Starting in 1995, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) transformed a bureaucratic healthcare system into a performance-driven, patient-focused integrated healthcare network. The VHA's experience may offer lessons for private and public sector providers as the U.S. explores alternative healthcare delivery systems and payment methods. Similar patient-focused integrated systems are one of the hallmarks of the latest U.S. attempt to improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare delivery. The use of performance incentives to promote cooperation and innovation is also central to both the VHA and the U.S. reform. This study reviews the VHA's experience with an eye to identifying issues and potential research avenues for accounting researchers interested in the role of accounting information for control, coordination, and organizational change.