The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) continues to be used to purportedly measure self-esteem of people with intellectual disabilities, despite the lack of sound evidence concerning its validity and reliability when employed with this population. The psychometric foundations of the RSES were analyzed here with a sample of 219 participants with intellectual disabilities. The factor analytic methods employed revealed two factors (Self-Worth and Self-Criticism) and more specific problems with RSES Items 5 and 8. Overall, this scale showed only moderate temporal and moderate internal reliability and poor aspects of criterion validity. Results are discussed with reference to either developing a new measure of self-esteem or redesigning and simplifying the RSES in order to increase its initial face validity in intellectual disability samples.