Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between congenital gastrointestinal anomalies requiring neonatal surgery and neurodevelopmental outcome. Among the children born in metropolitan Atlanta during 1982–2001 who survived to age 1 year (N  =  762,824), we identified children with congenital gastrointestinal anomalies via linkage with the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program and children who received special education services via linkage with the Special Education Database of Metropolitan Atlanta. Several modest increases in special education service use were observed among children with isolated congenital gastrointestinal anomalies; no association was statistically significant. Among children with Hirschsprung disease, gastroschisis, esophageal atresia, intestinal malrotation, bowel atresia, or imperforate anus who had multiple anomalies, we observed statistically significant increases in special education service use.

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