The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and a continuous approach for representing autism symptom severity, based on ADOS severity scores, were used in 2 separate sets of analyses. All analyses controlled for nonverbal IQ and chronological age. Nonverbal IQ accounted for significant variance in all language outcomes with large effect sizes. Results of the categorical analyses failed to reveal an effect of diagnostic group (fragile X syndrome–autism, fragile X syndrome–no autism) on standardized language test performance. Results of the continuous analyses revealed a negative relationship between autism symptom severity and all of the standardized language measures. Implications for representing autism symptoms in fragile X syndrome research are considered.

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