Research was reviewed on small-group instruction for learners with disabilities. The review was conducted for articles published between 1990 and 2010 on the application of small-group direct instruction to teach discrete skills using prompting procedures. A total of 47 articles with 197 participants and 687 replications of effects was located. Small-group instruction was effective for 195 of 197 participants and across variations in implementation and contexts. Implementers were primarily special education personnel, and instruction typically occurred in special education settings. Rigorous designs were used in all studies, and fidelity was assessed in 46 of 47 studies and was uniformly high. Students consistently reached criterion on their own target behaviors, generalized those behaviors, maintained them, and learned the behaviors taught to their peers (when this was measured, which occurred in a majority of the studies). Future research should examine comparisons of procedural variables and promoting social behaviors between group mates.

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