This methodological review draws attention to the challenges faced by intellectual and developmental disabilities researchers in the appropriate design and analysis of group comparison studies. We provide a brief overview of matching methodologies in the field, emphasizing group-matching designs used in behavioral research on cognition and language in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and Williams syndrome. The limitations of relying on p values to establish group equivalence are discussed in the context of other existing methods: equivalence tests, propensity scores, and regression-based analyses. Our primary recommendation for advancing research on intellectual and developmental disabilities is the use of descriptive indices of adequate group matching: effect sizes (i.e., standardized mean differences) and variance ratios.

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