Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) display wide-ranging intellectual and behavioral abilities that affect daily life. We describe the educational setting of students with FXS and assess the relationships between school setting, co-occurring conditions, and functional ability using a national survey sample (n = 982). The majority of students with FXS in this sample have formal individualized education plans, spend part of the day outside regular classrooms, and receive modifications when in a regular classroom. Males with FXS and certain co-occurring conditions (autism, aggression, and self-injurious behavior) are more likely to spend the entire day outside regular classrooms, compared to males without these co-occurring conditions. Students who spend more time in regular classrooms are more likely to perform functional tasks without help.