Translational research means different things to different people. In the biomedical research community, translational research is the process of applying knowledge from basic biology and clinical trials to techniques and tools that address critical medical needs such as new therapies. Translational research then is a “bench to bedside” bridge specifically designed to improve health outcomes (Wetmore & Garner, 2010). In this sense, animal models or cell culture systems may be used to learn about basic underlying genetic and physiologic systems that are exceedingly difficult to study in human subjects (Reeves et al., 2019). This has been a major theme in Down syndrome (DS) research since the mid-1980s when mouse models that approximate the condition of trisomy 21 (Ts21) first became available (Das & Reeves 2011). Translational research has recently taken on a more expansive meaning, as the process of turning observations from the laboratory, the clinic, and the community can all lead to new therapeutic approaches to improve population health outcomes (Rubio et al., 2010). This model has received increased attention in the last decade as it is clear that improving developmental outcomes for people with DS requires a community effort on the part of all stakeholders (Capone, 2010).

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