A subset of mothers who carry the FMR1 premutation may express a unique phenotype. The relationship between the FMR1 phenotype and mother-child interaction in families with fragile X-associated disorders has not been well characterized, despite the importance of high-quality mother-child interaction for child development. This study examined the association between the FMR1 phenotype and the quality of interactions between mothers and their adolescent/young adult sons with fragile X syndrome. Mother-youth synchrony was coded from a dyadic interaction. Maternal anxiety and depression symptoms, executive function deficits, and pragmatic language difficulties were evaluated. Results indicated that pragmatic language was associated with mother-youth synchrony. These findings highlight the importance of family-centered intervention practices for families with fragile X-associated disorders.