Variation in the FMR1 gene may affect aspects of cognition, such as executive function and memory. Environmental factors, such as stress, may also negatively impact cognitive functioning. Participants included 1,053 mothers of children with and without developmental disabilities. Participants completed self-report measures of executive function, memory, and stress (i.e., life events, parenting status), and provided DNA to determine CGG repeat length (ranging from 7 to 192 CGGs). Stress exposure significantly predicted greater self-reported difficulties in executive function and the likelihood of memory problems. Cubic CGG effects independently predicted executive function and memory difficulties, suggesting effects of both genetic variation and environmental stress exposure on cognitive functioning.