Some patients with intellectual disabilities spend longer than others in emergence from ambulatory general anesthesia for dental treatment. Although antiepileptic drugs and anesthetics might be involved, an independent predictor for delay of the emergence remains unclear. Thus, a purpose of this study is to identify independent factors affecting the delay of emergence from general anesthesia. This was a retrospective cohort study in dental patients with intellectual disabilities. Patients in need of sedative premedication were removed from participants. The outcome was time until emergence from general anesthesia. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used to extract independent factors affecting the outcome. Antiepileptic drugs and anesthetic parameters were included as predictor variables. The study included 102 cases. Clobazam, clonazepam, and phenobarbital were shown to be independent determinants of emergence time. Parameters relating to anesthetics, patients' backgrounds, and dental treatment were not independent factors. Delay in emergence time in ambulatory general anesthesia is likely to be related to the antiepileptic drugs of benzodiazepine or barbiturates in patients with intellectual disability.

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