Tracheal stenosis after tracheotomy can cause difficult airway management and respiratory complications. It is difficult to predict tracheal stenosis after tracheotomy based on a patient's symptoms as the symptoms of tracheal stenosis appear only after they become severe. In patients with a history of previous tracheotomy, it is important to consider the risk factors for tracheal stenosis. Detailed preoperative evaluation of patients with a history of previous tracheotomy is essential and should include 3-dimensional assessment of the airway.
We report the preoperative assessment and perioperative management of an 83-year-old woman at high risk for tracheal stenosis due to a previous emergency tracheotomy who was scheduled to undergo general anesthesia for a right maxillectomy for squamous cell carcinoma. Preoperative anteroposterior chest radiograph revealed findings indicative of tracheal stenosis. Additional detailed examinations of the stenotic area were conducted with computed tomography imaging and bronchofiberscopy. General anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation was performed, and although there were no adverse intraoperative events, stridor after extubation was observed. Nebulized epinephrine was administered via an ultrasound nebulizer and effectively improved the patient's postoperative transient dyspnea.