Myotonic dystrophy (dystrophia myotonica; DM) is an uncommon progressive hereditary muscle disorder that can present with variable severity at birth, in early childhood, or most commonly as an adult. Patients with DM, especially type 1 (DM1), are extremely sensitive to the respiratory depressant effects of sedative-hypnotics, anxiolytics, and opioid agonists. This case report describes a 37-year-old male patient with previously undiagnosed DM1 who received dental care under minimal sedation using intravenous midazolam. During the case, the patient experienced 2 brief episodes of hypoxemia, the second of which required emergency intubation after propofol and succinylcholine and resulted in extended hospital admission. A lipid emulsion (Liposyn II 20%) infusion was given approximately 2 hours after the last local anesthetic injection due to slight ST elevation and suspicion of local anesthetic toxicity (LAST). Months after treatment, the patient suffered a fall resulting in a fatal traumatic brain injury. Complications noted in this case report were primarily attributed to the unknown diagnosis of DM1, although additional precipitating factors were likely present. This report also provides a basic review of the literature and clinical guidelines for managing myotonic dystrophy patients for dental care with local anesthesia, sedation, or general anesthesia.

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