Mouth breathing is an inevitable result of obstruction of the nasal airway. Associated changes in mandibular posture and the function of related muscles have long been postulated to cause undesirable changes in facial growth. Evidence for such a cause-effect relationship is reviewed and illustrated with clinical records.

Presented at the 1981 meeting of the Midwest component of the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists.

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Author notes

Dr. McNamara is an Associate Professor of Anatomy and Research Scientist, Center for Human Growth and Development at the University of Michigan, and in the private practice of orthodontics in Ann Arbor, He is a dental graduate of the University of California at San Francisco and holds a Certificate in Orthodontics from the same institution and a Ph.D. degree in Anatomy from the University of Michigan