The effects of a passive lingual arch on lower incisor and molar positions after extraction of first bicuspids are analyzed. Results indicate that a lingual arch can be effective in maintaining arch length, while still allowing normal changes in incisor, cuspid and second bicuspid positions.

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Author notes

Doctor Miotti is in the private practice of Orthodontics in Padua, Italy, and Lecturer in Orthodontics, Scuola di Specializzazione in Ortognatodonzia, University of Padua. She holds M.D. and D.M.D. degrees from the University of Padua, and M.Sc. in Orthodontics from the University of London (England)