ABSTRACT

Objectives

To evaluate tooth movement, orofacial pain, and leptin, interleukin (IL)–1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–α cytokine levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic treatment in obese adolescents.

Materials and Methods

Participants included adolescent patients aged 12–18 years: group 1, obese (n = 30), and group 2, nonobese controls (n = 30). They were evaluated before (T0) and after 1 hour (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 1 week (T3) of fixed appliance bonding. Periodontal examination (T0), collection of GCF (T1, T2, T3), and evaluation of Little's irregularity index (T0, T3) were performed, and a visual analog scale was used to measure pain (T1, T2, T3). Evaluation of IL-1β, TNF-α, and leptin cytokines was performed using a Luminex assay. Mann-Whitney and t-tests were used for intergroup comparisons, and a generalized estimating equation and cluster analyses were used for comparisons among observation times (P < .05).

Results

The obese group had a higher prevalence of probing depth of ≥4 mm and bleeding on probing. Orthodontic tooth movement was similar in both groups. Peak of pain was at T2 in both groups and was higher in the obese patients. TNF-α showed a slight increase at T1, followed by a gradual decrease at T2 and T3 in both groups. The obese group had a higher concentration of IL-1β before and during orthodontic treatment. There was no difference in tooth movement between obese and control patients during the first week of orthodontic treatment.

Conclusions

Obese adolescents had a greater subjective report of orofacial pain after 24 hours of orthodontic treatment and higher concentrations of IL-1β proinflammatory cytokine before and during tooth movement as compared with nonobese control adolescents.

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Author notes

a

Postgraduate Student, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.

b

Postgraduate Student, Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.

c

Professor; Department of Orthodontics, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.

d

Associate Professor; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.