ABSTRACT

Objectives

To investigate the effects of exendin-4 on orthodontic tooth movement distance, root resorption, and expression levels of osteoclast-related cytokines in a mouse model.

Materials and Methods

A 10-g NiTi coil spring was placed between the anterior alveolar bone and upper left first molar of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Twenty microliters of exendin-4 solution (containing 0.2 μg, 4 μg, or 20 μg exendin-4) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were injected on the buccal side of the upper left first molar at 2-day intervals (4 mice per group). Mice were sacrificed on day 12; silicone impressions were taken to record tooth movement distance. The left maxillae of the PBS and 20 μg exendin-4 groups were also excised for histological analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis.

Results

Orthodontic tooth movement distance was smaller in the 20 μg exendin-4 group than in the PBS group (P < .01). Compared with the PBS group, the 20 μg exendin-4 group showed lower osteoclast number (P < .05), odontoclast number (P < .05), and root resorption surface percentage (P < .05). Relative to maxillae with PBS injections, maxillae with 20 μg exendin-4 injections had lower receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) mRNA expression (P < .05), TNF-α mRNA expression (P < .05), and RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio (P<.01). There were no differences in the expression of OPG mRNA.

Conclusions

Exendin-4 inhibits orthodontic tooth movement. Therefore, additional attention is needed for orthodontic patients who receive exendin-4 for diabetes treatment. GLP-1 receptor may be a treatment target for patients with severe root resorption.

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Author notes

a

Graduate Student, Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

b

Associate Professor, Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

c

Professor, Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.