To explore the effect of diabetic status on the proinflammatory chemokine profile and levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) derived from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.

Materials and Methods

Two groups, nondiabetic and T2DM, were included. Their demographics, biochemical parameters including hemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose, body mass index, and oral hygiene status were recorded. GCF sampling was performed after 2 months of placement of stainless steel archwires and chemokines (primary outcome) were quantified using Human Magnetic Luminex multiplex assay. Secondary outcomes were assessment of clinical periodontal status, unstimulated whole saliva flow rate, and GCF flow rate.


Twenty participants each in the nondiabetic (mean age: 26.4 years) and T2DM (mean age: 27.2 years) groups gave consent to participate. Biochemical analysis showed significantly increased values for hemoglobin A1c (P < .001), fasting blood glucose (P < .0001), body mass index(P = .047), and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (P = .041) for the T2DM group. Bleeding on probing was significantly higher in participants with T2DM than nondiabetic participants (P = .039). Resistin (P = .034) and AGEs (P = .017) showed significantly higher values in participants with T2DM than nondiabetic participants. Pearson correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between resistin (r = 0.1372; P = .022) and AGEs (r = 0.0194; P = .0186) against bleeding on probing in participants with T2DM.


The biochemical profile of GCF samples from participants with T2DM after alignment demonstrated higher levels of resistin and AGEs. The data suggest the presence of a proinflammatory response in patients with T2DM undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.

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Author notes


Associate Professor, Department of Preventive Dental Science, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; and Department of Preventive Dental Science, College of Dentistry, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.