To examine whether patients with different blood glycemic levels undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy demonstrate changes in the biochemical profiles of crevicular fluid and salivary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and proinflammatory cytokine levels in comparison with nondiabetic healthy subjects.

Materials and Methods

Prediabetic subjects, subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and subjects without a diabetes mellitus diagnosis undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy with MBT prescription brackets (0.022-inch brackets and 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwires) were included in the study. The following clinical periodontal parameters were evaluated: (1) plaque score (PS), (2) probing depth (PD), (3) bleeding on probing (BOP), and (4) clinical attachment loss. Crevicular fluid and saliva specimens were collected during regular orthodontic visits. Salivary and crevicular fluid tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, ghrelin, resistin, AGEs, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κΒ ligand were evaluated using a human magnetic Luminex multiplex assay.


BOP scores were significantly higher among T2DM subjects (19.2%) than among nondiabetic subjects (11.2%) and prediabetic subjects (15.9%). Comparable values were demonstrated by all three study groups regarding PD scores and PSs. T2DM subjects demonstrated higher scores for gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) chemokines than nondiabetic and prediabetic subjects. A statistically significant difference was found in the levels of AGEs and resistin among the three study groups. The scores revealed for the levels of GCF resistin and AGEs versus periodontal BOP demonstrated a significant positive association by the Pearson correlation test.


T2DM patients demonstrated significantly higher levels of GCF resistin and AGEs during fixed orthodontic therapy. Chronic hyperglycemic patients undergoing orthodontic therapy demonstrated a proinflammatory response.

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Author notes


 Associate Professor, Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.