To evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis (MMDO) on facial soft tissues using three-dimensional (3D) images.

Materials and Methods

A total of 20 patients (average age 15.86 ± 2.17 years) were treated with RME and MMDO using tooth-borne distractors. Three-dimensional photographs of each patient were taken with a stereophotogrammetry system at baseline (T0), at the end of the distraction period (T1), and at the end of the consolidation period (T2). All data were analyzed using a dependent-samples t-test at a significance level of 5%.


Total and lower face height increased after MMDO (P < .05). Nasal and mouth width increased after RME as compared with baseline (P < .05). The labiomental angle increased at T1 and decreased at T2 (P < .05). After MMDO, the convexity angle increased while the mandibular angle decreased (P < .05). Upper and lower lip angles increased after RME (P < .05). The distance from the lower lip to the E plane increased after MMDO and decreased after RME (P < .05).


The MMDO and RME procedures provide an efficient nonextraction treatment alternative for transverse maxillomandibular deficiency. MMDO may improve the facial soft tissue profile in the transverse and vertical axis of the mandibular region.

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Author notes


Private Practice, Adana, Turkey.


Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Meridyen Oral Health Center, Private Practice, İstanbul, Turkey.


Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.


Associate Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.


Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey.