This issue of Advances in Pulmonary Hypertension highlights several associated conditions causing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that are of particular relevance globally and deserve to be on our radar: schistosomiasis, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and liver disease. These well-known conditions provide unique challenges to our understanding and treatment of PAH.
Schistosomiasis affects a shocking 200 million or more throughout the world, with 5–10% developing PAH. Yet it can be easy to forget that schistosomiasis is cause of Group I PAH. Brian Graham reviews the background, mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Graham leaves us with several cutting-edge questions yet to be answered regarding this disease.
Nicholas Kolaitis and Christopher Barnett provide us with an updated review on HIV-associated PAH. They take us through epidemiology, pathogenesis, and the impact of antiretroviral therapy. The approach to treatment includes a critical review of drug-drug interactions between HIV and PAH medications.
Rosechelle Ruggiero and Sonja Bartolome deliver a focused review of portopulmonary hypertension for the treating provider. They take us through current definitions, clinical features, and management with a crucial focus on special considerations for liver transplantation.
We gratefully thank all of our contributing authors for sharing their knowledge and insights. As the world shrinks, and our knowledge of mechanisms of disease and treatment grow, these articles are timely and well worth the read.