Pathology studies using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have focused on neoplasms, while studies in inflammatory pathology are rare. We previously demonstrated a CNN differentiates reactive gastropathy, Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG), and normal gastric mucosa.


To determine whether a CNN can differentiate the following 2 gastric inflammatory patterns: autoimmune gastritis (AG) and HPG.


Gold standard diagnoses were blindly established by 2 gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists. One hundred eighty-seven cases were scanned for analysis by HALO-AI. All levels and tissue fragments per slide were included for analysis. The cases were randomized, 112 (60%; 60 HPG, 52 AG) in the training set and 75 (40%; 40 HPG, 35 AG) in the test set. A HALO-AI correct area distribution (AD) cutoff of 50% or more was required to credit the CNN with the correct diagnosis. The test set was blindly reviewed by pathologists with different levels of GI pathology expertise as follows: 2 GI pathologists, 2 general surgical pathologists, and 2 residents. Each pathologist rendered their preferred diagnosis, HPG or AG.


At the HALO-AI AD percentage cutoff of 50% or more, the CNN results were 100% concordant with the gold standard diagnoses. On average, autoimmune gastritis cases had 84.7% HALO-AI autoimmune gastritis AD and HP cases had 87.3% HALO-AI HP AD. The GI pathologists, general anatomic pathologists, and residents were on average, 100%, 86%, and 57% concordant with the gold standard diagnoses, respectively.


A CNN can distinguish between cases of HPG and autoimmune gastritis with accuracy equal to GI pathologists.

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Author notes

The research in this paper was supported by the Human Tissue Repository and Tissue Analysis Shared Resource, funded by the Department of Pathology, The University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center and NCI 2P30CA118100.

The authors have no relevant financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.