Context.—

Helicobacter pylori–associated and autoimmune gastritis may coexist in a subset of patients who require treatment for both disorders.

Objective.—

To delineate findings that identify autoimmune gastritis in the background of H pylori infection.

Design.—

We examined cases of (1) patients with H pylori–associated gastritis who had successful eradication therapy and subsequent biopsies diagnostic of autoimmune gastritis and (2) H pylori–associated gastritis wherein pathologists noted features of autoimmune gastritis during original interpretation. Control patients underwent H pylori eradication but lacked evidence of autoimmune gastritis or H pylori infection after 10 years of follow-up.

Results.—

Eight subjects had H pylori–associated gastritis followed by H pylori–negative sampling that showed autoimmune gastritis. Review of original samples showed full-thickness inflammation of oxyntic mucosa in 8 of 8 and oxyntic gland loss in 7 of 8 cases. Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia, pyloric metaplasia, and intestinal metaplasia were present in 4 of 8 (80% of 5 tested cases), 4 of 8, and 3 of 8 cases, respectively. Features of autoimmune gastritis were noted at the time of their original H pylori diagnosis in 11 study subjects. Ten of 11 samples displayed full-thickness inflammation of oxyntic mucosa and/or partial loss of oxyntic glands, 8 of 11 had ECL cell hyperplasia (all tested cases), 6 of 11 showed pyloric metaplasia, and 4 of 11 harbored intestinal metaplasia. Except for full-thickness oxyntic mucosa inflammation, these features were absent in control cases.

Conclusions.—

Full-thickness inflammation combined with oxyntic gland loss and ECL cell hyperplasia may help to identify autoimmune gastritis in patients with concomitant H pylori infection.

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Competing Interests

The authors have no relevant financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.

Author notes

These data were presented, in part, at the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology 2020 annual meeting; February 28–March 5, 2020; Los Angeles, California.