Perineural invasion (PNI) by prostate cancer has been associated with adverse pathology, including extraprostatic extension. However, the significance of PNI quantification on prostate biopsy (PBx) remains unclear.


To compare radical prostatectomy (RP) findings and long-term outcomes in patients whose PBx had exhibited PNI.


We assessed 497 consecutive patients undergoing sextant (6-site/≥12-core) PBx showing conventional adenocarcinoma followed by RP.


PNI was found in 1 (n = 290)/2 (n = 132)/3 (n = 47)/4 (n = 19)/5 (n = 5)/6 (n = 4) of the sites/regions of PBx. Compared with a single PNI site, multiple PNIs were significantly associated with higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen, higher Grade Group (GG) on PBx or RP, higher pT or pN category, positive surgical margin, and larger estimated tumor volume. When compared in subgroups of patients based on PBx GG, significant differences in RP GG (GG1–3), pT (GG1–2/GG1–3/GG2/GG3), surgical margin status (GG1–3/GG3/GG5), or tumor volume (GG1–2/GG1–3/GG2/GG3) between 1 versus multiple PNIs were observed. Moreover, there were significant differences in prostate-specific antigen (PNI sites: 1–2 versus 3–6/1–3 versus 4–6/1–4 versus 5–6), RP GG (1–3 versus 4–6/1–4 versus 5–6), pT (1–2 versus 3–6/1–3 versus 4–6), pN (1–3 versus 4–6), or tumor volume (1–2 versus 3–6/1–4 versus 5–6). Outcome analysis revealed significantly higher risks of disease progression in the entire cohort or PBx GG1–2/GG1–3/GG2/GG3/GG5 cases showing 2 to 6 PNIs, compared with respective controls with 1-site PNI. In multivariate analysis, multisite PNI was an independent predictor for progression (hazard ratio = 1.556, P = .03).


Multiple sites of PNI on PBx were associated with worse histopathologic features in RP specimens and poorer prognosis. PNI may thus need to be specified, if present, in every sextant site on PBx, especially those showing GG1–3 cancer.

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The authors have no relevant financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.

Bell and Teramoto contributed equally to this work.

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