The most common benign hepatic mass-forming lesions often display fairly specific imaging characteristics, whereas less familiar, rarer benign neoplasms and pseudotumors may pose a diagnostic challenge in clinical, radiology, and pathology practice because of either their rarity or their unusual features.


To review a selection of pseudotumors and unusual benign hepatic neoplasms encountered in consultation practices with a focus on nonepithelial tumors.

Data Sources.—

Sources include English-language literature and personal experiences.


Several benign conditions (namely, segmental atrophy, infections, immunoglobulin G4 [IgG4]–related sclerosing disease, angiomyolipoma, mesenchymal hamartoma, and various vascular lesions) can lead to formation of hepatic masses. Because of their rarity and underrecognition, such lesions are often diagnostically challenging. Awareness of hepatic pseudotumors and various rare hepatic neoplasms and their potential mimics can forestall misdiagnosis and inappropriate management.

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Competing Interests

The authors have no relevant financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.