Epithelioid angiomyolipomas (eAMLs) are rare tumors of the kidney that occur in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex or in a sporadic setting; a subset of these tumors exhibit metastatic behavior.


To analyze molecular profiling data to identify pathogenic alterations in rare cases of metastatic eAML, and to identify immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based surrogate markers.


Molecular profiling data from the American Association for Cancer Research GENIE registry was accessed for 23 patients with angiomyolipomas, and 9 of 16 patients with eAMLs in our institutional registry were evaluated with next-generation sequencing. IHC was performed to screen for alterations of P53, RB, and ATRX for all 16 institutional cases.


Combined alterations of 5 tumor-suppressor genes (TP53, ATRX, RB1, APC, and NF1) were identified using next-generation sequencing in 7 of 8 (88%) patients with metastatic disease compared to a single patient with nonmetastatic disease (RB1 variant of uncertain significance; 1 of 24, 4%). No cases with abnormal IHC results were identified in 11 patients with nonmetastatic disease compared to 3 of 5 patients with metastatic disease.


Our results show that the majority of metastatic eAMLs have mutations of 5 tumor-suppressor genes (TP53, ATRX, RB1, APC, and NF1), while these are rare in patients with nonmetastatic disease. Furthermore, IHC for P53, RB, and ATRX may serve as a screen for a subset of these alterations in resource-limited settings. These findings, if validated in larger data sets, have the potential to predict metastatic behavior in eAML.

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Author notes

The authors have no relevant financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.

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The results of this study have been presented at the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology Annual Meeting; March 21, 2022; Los Angeles, California.

Supplementary data