Where wild carnivores such as the Australian dingo interact with and impact on livestock enterprises, lethal control and landscape-scale exclusion are commonly employed. However, interest in alternative non-lethal management approaches has recently increased. This is evidenced by several reviews of non-lethal methods that can be said to be working toward improved coexistence. Nevertheless, and despite centuries of conflict, our non-lethal human-wildlife coexistence toolkit remains remarkably deficient. Innovation and evaluation of non-lethal methods should be prioritised to ensure that the economic, ecological, cultural and intrinsic values of dingoes are retained, while minimising the economic and emotional costs of conflict with livestock producers. In this paper we summarise some of the practical tools that might be effective in relation to the dingo, particularly those yet to be formally investigated, and discuss some of the possible hurdles to implementation. We conclude by suggesting pathways for human-dingo coexistence, and the steps necessary for appropriately evaluating non-lethal tools.

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