Most Queensland islands today have no koalas, but in the past several islands were inhabited by the iconic marsupial. Using historical research methods, this paper compiles what is known about the arrival of koalas on Queensland islands, both naturally occurring and translocated, and discusses their persistence, current status, environments and threats. Seventeen islands are identified as having a history of koalas with 13 of these islands having once been part of the koala’s natural range. Two of these islands with natural populations plus four unoccupied islands received historical translocations as early as the 1920s and 1930s as a conservation tool or to boost tourism. Currently, 7 of the 17 islands still have koalas. For future research, the paper raises the important question about whether some Queensland islands are suitable habitat sanctuaries for koalas for further translocations.

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