The Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus was listed as a vulnerable species by both the New South Wales (NSW) and Australian Governments in 2001. The NSW Government has since collaborated with other organisations and stakeholders on projects and initiatives for flying-fox conservation and population monitoring. While contentious issues for horticulturalists and communities are detailed in a companion paper, this paper examines a number of persistent threats and conservation issues, such as habitat destruction and food shortages, anthropogenic injuries and extreme heat events. While there have been several independent efforts to conserve flying-fox habitat leading up to the recent commencement of a state-wide funding program for flying-fox habitat restoration, the continual loss of foraging habitat to urban development occurring at a greater scale is a conundrum. Flying-foxes suffering from injuries with anthropogenic causes are primarily addressed by wildlife carers rescuing and rehabilitating them. Additionally, preventative actions, such as promotion of wildlife-friendly netting, are implemented by different organisations to reduce injuries. There is also work being done by government agencies, land managers, scientists and wildlife carers to improve heat stress management, including moving towards a more coordinated and collaborative approach for responding to extreme heat events and undertaking scientific research. The diversity of threats affecting the Grey-headed Flying-fox means that the species’ conservation is beyond the capacity of any one organisation and relies on the collaborative efforts of a broad range of stakeholders across the entire species’ range.