A total of 131 non-marine species of native mammals, including the Dingo Canis familiaris dingo, has been recorded in New South Wales since the early days of European settlement in 1788. Twenty-nine of these species are now extinct in the State; 21 species remain extant beyond the borders of New South Wales while eight species are entirely extinct. Most losses (21 species) occurred before 1900, particularly in the arid western region of the State. Overall, State-level extinctions represent 39.3 per cent of native rodents (11 of 28 species), 27.0 per cent of marsupials (17 of 63 species) and 2.7 per cent of bats (one of 37 species). Forty-eight extant species of native mammals are considered to be presently endangered, including 20 species of marsupials, nine rodents and 19 ba1s; the distributions of most encompass eastern New South Wales. Three scenarios are presented for the State's native mammals for the year 2038, ranging from optimistic (16 species are added to the present list by discoveries and taxonomic revision) through maintainance of the status quo to pessimistic (48 presently endangered species disappear). Which scenario is realized will depend on whether appropriate programmes of research and management are implemented now.

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