Evidence of viable populations of Mastacomys fuscus was found in two areas, the Snowy Mountains region in southern New South Wales (including the higher parts of the Australian Capital Territory), and at Barrington Tops in the north. Evidence of M. fuscus was found at 196 of 231 sites at which searches were conducted for faecal remains within the Snowy Mountains region, and at 14 of 27 sites at Barrington Tops. Sites could be classified in six broad habitat types, all having two major components, protection from predators, and grass or sedge to provide food. All sites at which the species was detected were characterised by a mean annual precipitation of ≯1000mm, a mean annual temperature of <10OC and altitudes <1000m. The presence of M. fuscus could not be confirmed at sites at lower elevations. Only populations in the Snowy Mountains region, specifically those above the winter snowline (<1500m), may be considered secure in the short term.

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