Ambassis agassizii (Agassiz's Glassfish) collected from Barren Box Swamp was bred in ponds at the Narrandera Fisheries Centre on ten occasions between 1968 and 1971 when surface water temperatures were 19.0 - 27.0°C, between November and early January, and again in February. Breeding conditions and limited embryological development were determined. A single, demersal, transparent, spherical, telolecithal and slightly adhesive egg was collected on 9.xii.70 at 23.0°C. It possessed a single oil globule; and measured 0.61mm in diameter. Eggs hatched in about a day at temperatures between 20.0 and 29.0°C. The smallest larva collected was 2.59mm, and was about 1.6mm at hatching. The pro-larval stage terminated at under 10 days after hatching. The largest male and female adults were 60.0 and 68.0mm (TL) and 2.51 and 3.88g respectively. Egg counts were 380 to 9966 (mean 3257) with higher counts in larger fish. Ovaries generally had two size ranges of oocytes. Spawning was multiple. The GSI rose to 10.50 and 8.86 in females and males respectively. The breeding of A. agassizii was compared with the coastal population and some other ambassids, and some comparisons are made with other inland NSW species.

Allen, G.R. 1996. Family Chandidae. Glassfishes, chanda perches. Pp.146-149 in Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia, edited by R.M. McDowall. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.
Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia
(pg. 
146
-
149
)
Allen, G.R. and Burgess, W.E. 1990. A review of the glassfishes (Chandidae) of Australia and New Guinea. Records of the Western Australia Museum. Supplement 34:139-206.
A review of the glassfishes (Chandidae) of Australia and New Guinea
Records of the Western Australia Museum
(pg. 
139
-
206
)
Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. and Allen, M. 2002. Field guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth.
Field guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia
Axelrod, H.R. and Schultz, L.P. 1955. Handbook of tropical aquarium fishes. Family Centropomidae or Ambassidae. New York McGraw-Hill. Pp. 573-575.
Handbook of tropical aquarium fishes. Family Centropomidae or Ambassidae
Bates, R.G. 1935. Breeding Ambassis buroensis. One of the Glassfishes. The Aquarium. Philadelphia Vol. 3, no.12 (April 1935): 278-280.
Breeding Ambassis buroensis. One of the Glassfishes
The Aquarium. Philadelphia
, vol. 
3
 (pg. 
278
-
280
)
Bayliss, P 1987. 8 Kangaroo dynamics. Pp. 119-134 in Kangaroos, their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia, edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, London.
Kangaroos, their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia
(pg. 
119
-
134
)
Belsare, D.K. 1962. Seasonal changes in the ovary of Ophicephalus punctatus Block. Indian Journal of Fisheries 9(1):140-56.
Seasonal changes in the ovary of Ophicephalus punctatus Block
Indian Journal of Fisheries
, vol. 
9
 (pg. 
140
-
56
)
Bishop, K.A., Allen, S.A., Pollard, D.A. and Cook, M.G. 2001. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory: Autecology. Supervising Scientist Report 145; Supervising Scientist, Darwin.
Supervising Scientist Report
Breder, C.M. and Rosen, D.E. 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. Natural History Press; New York. Pp. 396-397.
Modes of reproduction in fishes
(pg. 
396
-
397
)
Cadwallader, P.L. and Backhouse, G.N. 1983. A guide to the freshwater fishes of Victoria. Government Printer: Melbourne. 249p.
A guide to the freshwater fishes of Victoria
pg. 
249
 
Coates, D. 1990. Aspects of the biology of the perchlet Ambassis interrupta Bleeker (Pisces: Ambassidae) in the Sepik River, Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41: 267-74.
Aspects of the biology of the perchlet Ambassis interrupta Bleeker (Pisces: Ambassidae) in the Sepik River, Papua New Guinea
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
41
 (pg. 
267
-
74
)
Faragher, R. A. and Rodgers, M. 1997. Performance of sampling gear types in the NSW Rivers Survey. Pp. 251-268 in Fish and rivers in stress - the NSW Rivers Survey, edited by J.H. Harris and P.C. Gehrke. NSW Fisheries Office of Conservation and the Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology: Cronulla and Canberra.
Fish and rivers in stress - the NSW Rivers Survey
(pg. 
251
-
268
)
Gehrke, P.C., Brown, P., Schiller, C.B., Moffatt, D.B. and Bruce, A.M. 1995. River regulation and fish communities in the Murray-Darling River system, Australia. Pp. 363-375 in Regulated Rivers: Research and Management. Vol 2. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Hammer, M.P. and Walker, K.F. 2004. A catalogue of South Australian freshwater fishes, including new records, range extensions and translocations. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 128:85-97.
A catalogue of South Australian freshwater fishes, including new records, range extensions and translocations
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia
, vol. 
128
 (pg. 
85
-
97
)
Harris, J.H. and Rowland, S.J. 1996. Family Percichthyidae. Australian freshwater cods and bassess. Pp. 150-63 in Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia, edited by R.M. McDowall. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.
Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia
(pg. 
150
-
63
)
Hubbs, C.L. 1943. Terminology of early stages of fishes. Copeia 1943 (4) :260.
Terminology of early stages of fishes
Copeia 1943
pg. 
260
 
Ingram, B.A. and Rimmer, M.A. 1992. Induced breeding and larval rearing of the endangered Australian freshwater fish trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Cuvier) (Percichthyidae). Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 24: 7-17.
Induced breeding and larval rearing of the endangered Australian freshwater fish trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Cuvier) (Percichthyidae)
Aquaculture and Fisheries Management
, vol. 
24
 (pg. 
7
-
17
)
Innes, W.T. 1966. Exotic Aquarium Fishes. (18th edition). Philadelphia. Innes Publication Co. 541p.
Exotic Aquarium Fishes
pg. 
541
 
Ivantsoff, W., Crowley, E., Howe, E. and Semple, G. 1988. Biology and early development of eight fish species from the Alligator Rivers region. Technical Memorandum, Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra 1988.
Technical Memorandum, Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region
Jackson, P.D. 1978. Spawning and early development of the river blackfish Gadopsis marmoratus Richardson (Gadopsiformes: Gadopsidae) in the McKenzie River, Victoria. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 29(3): 293-298.
Spawning and early development of the river blackfish Gadopsis marmoratus Richardson (Gadopsiformes: Gadopsidae) in the McKenzie River, Victoria
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
29
 (pg. 
293
-
298
)
Jackson, P.D., Koehn, J.D., Lintermans, M. and Sanger, A.C. 1996. Family Gadopsidae. Freshwater Blackfishes. Pp. 186-190 in Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia, edited by R.M. McDowall. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.
Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia
(pg. 
186
-
190
)
Koehn, J.D. and O'Connor, W.G. 1990. Biological information for management of native freshwater fish of Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment, Freshwater Fish Management Branch. Government Printer, Melbourne.
Biological information for management of native freshwater fish of Victoria
Krumholz, L.A. 1948. Reproduction in the western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird and Girard) and its use in mosquito control. Ecological Monographs 18:1-43.
Reproduction in the western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird and Girard) and its use in mosquito control
Ecological Monographs
, vol. 
18
 (pg. 
1
-
43
)
Kuntz, A. and Radcliffe, L. 1915. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bulletin of Bureau of Fisheries, Washington 35:89-134.
Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes
Bulletin of Bureau of Fisheries, Washington
, vol. 
35
 (pg. 
89
-
134
)
Lagler, K.F. 1956. Freshwater Fishery Biology. Brown, Dubuque.
Freshwater Fishery Biology
Lake, J.S. 1967a. Rearing experiments with five species of Australian freshwater fishes, I. Inducement to spawning. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 18:137-53.
Rearing experiments with five species of Australian freshwater fishes, I. Inducement to spawning
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
18
 (pg. 
137
-
53
)
Lake, J.S. 1967b. Rearing experiments with five species of Australian freshwater fishes, II. Morphogenesis and ontogeny. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 18:155-73.
Rearing experiments with five species of Australian freshwater fishes, II. Morphogenesis and ontogeny
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
18
 (pg. 
155
-
73
)
Larson, H.K. and Hoese, D.F. 1996. Family Gobiidae, subfamilies Eleotridinae and Butinae. Gudgeons. Pp. 200-228 in Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia, edited by R.M. McDowall. Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW.
Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia
Larson, H.K. and Martin, K.C. 1990. Freshwater Fishes of the Northern Territory. Northern Territory Museum Handbook Series No. 1. Pp.37-42.
Legget, R. 1984. The Olive Perchlet Ambassis nigripinnis, Fishes of Sahul 1: 29-30.
The Olive Perchlet Ambassis nigripinnis
Fishes of Sahul
, vol. 
1
 (pg. 
29
-
30
)
Legget, R. and Merrick, J. 1987. Australian Native Fishes for Aquariums. Griffin Press Ltd., Netley, SA.
Australian Native Fishes for Aquariums
Llewellyn, L.C. 1968. Tagging gives answers to fish growth queries. The Fisherman. Journal of State Fisheries of New South Wales. Winter 1968: 1-5.
Tagging gives answers to fish growth queries
The Fisherman, Journal of State Fisheries of New South Wales
, vol. 
Winter 1968
 (pg. 
1
-
5
)
Llewellyn, L.C. 1971. Breeding studies on the freshwater forage fish of the Murray-Darling river system. The Fisherman, Journal of State Fisheries New South Wales. 3(13):1-12.
Breeding studies on the freshwater forage fish of the Murray-Darling river system
The Fisherman, Journal of State Fisheries New South Wales
, vol. 
3(13)
 (pg. 
1
-
12
)
Llewellyn, L.C. 1973. Spawning, development and temperature tolerance of the spangled perch, Madigania unicolor (Gunther), from inland waters in Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24:73-94.
Spawning, development and temperature tolerance of the spangled perch, Madigania unicolor (Gunther), from inland waters in Australia
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
24
 (pg. 
73
-
94
)
Llewellyn, L.C. 1974. Spawning, development and distribution of the Southern Pigmy Perch Nannoperca australis australis Gunther from inland waters in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 25:121-49.
Spawning, development and distribution of the Southern Pigmy Perch Nannoperca australis australis Gunther from inland waters in eastern Australia
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
25
 (pg. 
121
-
49
)
Llewellyn, L.C. 1975. Temperature and River Height Data for Fifteen Inland Rivers of New South Wales 1963-1975. (5 parts). New South Wales, State Fisheries: Sydney.
Temperature and River Height Data for Fifteen Inland Rivers of New South Wales 1963-1975
Llewellyn, L.C. 1979. Some observations of the spawning and development of the Mitchellian Freshwater Hardyead Craterocephalus fluviatilis McCulloch from inland waters of NSW. Australian Zoologist 20(2):269-288.
Some observations of the spawning and development of the Mitchellian Freshwater Hardyead Craterocephalus fluviatilis McCulloch from inland waters of NSW
Australian Zoologist
, vol. 
20
 (pg. 
269
-
288
)
Llewellyn, L.C. 1980. Family Ambassidae. Chanda Perches, etc. Pp. 140-141 in Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia, edited by R.M. McDowall. Reed, Sydney.
Freshwater fishes of south eastern Australia
(pg. 
140
-
141
)
Llewellyn, L.C. 1983. The distribution of fish in New South Wales. Australian Society for Limnology. Special Publication. No. 7.
Llewellyn, L.C. 2005. Breeding biology, and egg and larval development of Galaxias rostratus Klunzinger the Murray Jollytail from inland New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 33(2):141-165.
Breeding biology, and egg and larval development of Galaxias rostratus Klunzinger the Murray Jollytail from inland New South Wales
Australian Zoologist
, vol. 
33
 (pg. 
141
-
165
)
Llewellyn, L.C. 2006. Breeding and development of the endangered Purple - spotted Gudgeon Mogurnda adspersa population from the Murray Darling. Australian Zoologist (In press).
Llewellyn, L.C. in press. Spawning and development of the Flat-headed Gudgeon Philypnodon grandiceps (Krefft, 1864) (Teleostei:Eleotridae). Australian Zoologist 33(4):480-510.
Mackay, N.J. 1973. Histological changes in the ovaries of the Golden Perch (Plectroplites ambiguus) associated with the reproductive cycle. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24:95-101.
Histological changes in the ovaries of the Golden Perch (Plectroplites ambiguus) associated with the reproductive cycle
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
24
 (pg. 
95
-
101
)
Macleay, W. 1881. Descriptive catalogue of the Fishers of Australia. Vol. 1. Pseudoambassis castelnaui. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales 5(3):339.
Descriptive catalogue of the Fishers of Australia. Vol. 1
Pseudoambassis castelnaui. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales
, vol. 
5
 pg. 
339
 
Manner, H.W. 1964. Elements of comparative vertebrate embryology. The Macmillan Company: New York.
Elements of comparative vertebrate embryology
Marshal, J. 1989. Galaxias olidus in southern Queensland. Fishes of Sahul 5: 223-225.
Galaxias olidus in southern Queensland
Fishes of Sahul
, vol. 
5
 (pg. 
223
-
225
)
May, E.B. and Gasaway, C.R. 1967. A preliminary key to the identification of larval fishes of Oklahoma, with particular reference to Canton Reservoir including a selected bibliography. Bulletin of Oklahoma Fisheries Research Laboratory. No. 5, Contribution (164): 1-42.
A preliminary key to the identification of larval fishes of Oklahoma, with particular reference to Canton Reservoir including a selected bibliography
Bulletin of Oklahoma Fisheries Research Laboratory
, vol. 
164
 (pg. 
1
-
42
)
Merrick, J.R. and Schmida, G.E. 1984. Australian freshwater fishes. Biology and Management. Griffin Press Ltd. Netley, South Australia.
Australian freshwater fishes. Biology and Management
Miller, B. 1976. Environmental control of gonadal cycles and egg laying periodicity in Little Pied and Little Black Cormorants in inland New South Wales. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Sydney.
Milton, D.A. and Arthington, A.H. 1983a. Reproduction and growth of Craterocephalus marjoriae and C. stercusmuscarum (Pisces: Atherinidae) in south east Queensland, Australia. Freshwater Biology 13: 589-597.
Reproduction and growth of Craterocephalus marjoriae and C. stercusmuscarum (Pisces: Atherinidae) in south east Queensland, Australia
Freshwater Biology
, vol. 
13
 (pg. 
589
-
597
)
Milton, D.A. and Arthington, A.H. 1983b. Reproductive biology of Gambusia affinis holbrooki Baird and Girard, Xiphophorus helleri (Günther) and X. maculatus (Heckel) (Pisces: Poeciliidae) in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Fish Biology 23:23-41.
Reproductive biology of Gambusia affinis holbrooki Baird and Girard, Xiphophorus helleri (Günther) and X. maculatus (Heckel) (Pisces: Poeciliidae) in Queensland, Australia
Journal of Fish Biology
, vol. 
23
 (pg. 
23
-
41
)
Milton, D.A. and Arthington, A.H. 1985. Reproductive strategy and growth of the Australian Smelt Retropinna semoni (Weber) (Pisces: Retropinnidae) and the Olive Perchlet, Ambassis nigripinnis (De Vis), (Pisces Ambassidae), in Brisbane south-eastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36 (3): 329-341.
Reproductive strategy and growth of the Australian Smelt Retropinna semoni (Weber) (Pisces: Retropinnidae) and the Olive Perchlet, Ambassis nigripinnis (De Vis), (Pisces Ambassidae), in Brisbane south-eastern Queensland
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
36
 (pg. 
329
-
341
)
Milward, N. 1965. Development of the eggs and early larvae of the Australian smelt, Retropinna semoni (Weber). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of N.S.W. 90(2):218-21.
Development of the eggs and early larvae of the Australian smelt, Retropinna semoni (Weber)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of N.S.W.
, vol. 
90
 (pg. 
218
-
21
)
Morris, S.A., Pollard, D.A., Gehrke, P.C. and Pogonoski, J.J. 2001. Threatened and potentially threatened freshwater fishes of coastal New South Wales and the Murray Darling Basin. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 33. Pp. 53-55.
Threatened and potentially threatened freshwater fishes of coastal New South Wales and the Murray Darling Basin
NSW Fisheries Final Report Series
(pg. 
53
-
55
)
Nair, G.S. 1957. On the breeding habits and development of Ambassis gymnocephalus (Lac). Bulletin of the Central Research Institute of University of Kerala India Series C. Natural Sciences 5:69-76.
On the breeding habits and development of Ambassis gymnocephalus (Lac)
Bulletin of the Central Research Institute of University of Kerala India Series C. Natural Sciences
, vol. 
5
 (pg. 
69
-
76
)
NSW Fisheries, 2005a. What is currently listed? http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au/thr/thr-species/whats_listed.htm
NSW Fisheries, 2005b. Fisheries Scientific Committee. Aquatic ecological community in the natural drainage of the lowland catchment of the Darling River. New South Wales Fisheries. Ref. Nos. FR 22. File No. FSC 01/10.
NSW Fisheries, 2005c. Fisheries Scientific Committee. Aquatic ecological community in the natural drainage of the lower Murray Catchment. New South Wales Fisheries. Ref. No. FR 16(2), File No. FSC 01/01.
O'Connor, W.G. and Koehn, J.D. 1991. Spawning of the Mountain Galaxias Galaxias olidus Gunther in Bruces Creek, Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 103 (2). 1991: 113-123.
Spawning of the Mountain Galaxias Galaxias olidus Gunther in Bruces Creek, Victoria
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria
, vol. 
103
 (pg. 
113
-
123
)
Pusey, B.J., Kennard, M.J. and Arthington, A.H. 2004. Freshwater Fishes of North-eastern Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Freshwater Fishes of North-eastern Australia
Richter, H. 1975. Spawning the Indian Glassfish, Tropical Fish Hobbyist. 24 (4). Pp. 4-12 and 95-98.
Spawning the Indian Glassfish
Tropical Fish Hobbyist
, vol. 
24
 (pg. 
4
-
12
)
Sanger, A.C. 1990. Aspects of the Life history of the two-spined blackfish Gadopsis bispinosus in King Parrot Creek, Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 102: 89-96.
Aspects of the Life history of the two-spined blackfish Gadopsis bispinosus in King Parrot Creek, Victoria
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria
, vol. 
102
 (pg. 
89
-
96
)
Scott, W.B. and Crossman, E.J. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Bulletin 184. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa.
Bulletin
Semple, G. 1985a. Ambassis macleayi, - maintenance, reproduction and development of the Reticulated Perchlet. Fishes of Sahul 2(4):90-94.
Ambassis macleayi, - maintenance, reproduction and development of the Reticulated Perchlet
Fishes of Sahul
, vol. 
2
 (pg. 
90
-
94
)
Semple, G.P. 1985b. Reproductive behaviour and development of the Glassperchlet, Ambassis agrammus Gunther (Pisces: Ambassidae), from the Alligator River system, Northern Territory. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36:797-805.
Reproductive behaviour and development of the Glassperchlet, Ambassis agrammus Gunther (Pisces: Ambassidae), from the Alligator River system, Northern Territory
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
36
 (pg. 
797
-
805
)
Sterba, G. 1973a. Dr. Sterba's Aquarium Handbook. The Pet Library, Ltd.: London. Pp. 317-8.
Dr. Sterba's Aquarium Handbook
(pg. 
317
-
8
)
Sterba, G. 1973b. Freshwater Fishes of the World. (Family Centropomidae Glassfishes, pp. 641-646). Vista:London.
Freshwater Fishes of the World
(pg. 
641
-
646
)
Stoye, F.H. 1935. Gleanings. From German Aquarium Society in the ‘Wochenshrift’ with comments from the translator. The Aquarium. Philadelphia. 3:107.
Gleanings. From German Aquarium Society in the ‘Wochenshrift’ with comments from the translator
The Aquarium
, vol. 
3
 pg. 
107
 
Steindachner, F. 1867. A. agassizii Chanda Perch. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 1v (i):9.
A. agassizii Chanda Perch
Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien
, vol. 
1v
 pg. 
9
 
Wong, P. 1994. The analysis of ten years of aerial survey data to determine the effects of hunting on game species of waterfowl. Report. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW) Environmental Survey and Research Branch; and School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney.
This content is only available as a PDF.