The developmental ontogeny and morphology of the eggs, larvae and early juveniles of the endangered Nannoperca oxleyana is described based on collections of preserved wild fish, and preserved and live captive specimens reared at 25 ± 1° C. Eggs are telolecithal, spherical, average 1.02 ± 0.004 (± S.E.) mm in diameter, have a smooth, slightly adhesive chorion without filaments, a translucent homogeneous yolk, display meroblastic cell division and follow the general pattern of teleost embryogenesis. Early, middle and late stages of embryonic development were completed on average at 16, 28 and 50 hours post fertilisation. The larvae have generalised perciform morphological development with no apparent larval specialisations. The body is moderately deep bodied and compressed laterally. Head spination is limited to the development of an opercular spine in postflexion larvae. Pigmentation is relatively heavy and uniform over the head and body. Large melanophores occur on the dorsal, lateral and ventral midlines. Squamation commenced in postflexion larvae from 7.5 mm preserved body length (BL) and was complete in all specimens greater than 10.3 mm. Live captive, translucent larvae become pale green within two days of hatching and then light brown during the preflexion and postflexion stages. Juveniles are typically light brown laterally, darker dorsally and have a silvery-white belly. Growth of live, captive larvae and juveniles up to 6-months post hatching was described by the equation: Log10 live BL = 0.6043 + 0.0042A (r2 = 0.917, P<0.00l, n = 323). Ranges for body length and age (days post hatch) of live captive fish were: preflexion 2.80-6.70 mm, 0-40 days; flexion: 6.35-7.70 mm, 21-61 days; postflexion: 6.40-10.30 mm, 43-118 days; and juveniles: 9.60-20.60 mm, 70-188 days. Live captive larvae commenced exogenous feeding at five days post hatching. Comparisons of N. oxleyana early developmental ontogeny and morphology are made with related percichthyids and sympatric species and implications for the conservation of the species are discussed.

Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. and Allen, M. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Western Australia.
Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia
Anderson, J.R., Lake, J.S. and Mackay, N.J. 1971. Notes on reproductive behaviour and ontogeny in two species of Hypseleotris (= Carassiops) (Gobiidae: Teleostei). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 22: 139-145.
Notes on reproductive behaviour and ontogeny in two species of Hypseleotris (= Carassiops) (Gobiidae: Teleostei)
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
22
 (pg. 
139
-
145
)
Arthington, A.H. 1996. Recovery Plan for the Oxleyan Pygmy Perch, Nannoperca oxleyana. Centre for Catchment and In-stream Research, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland.
Recovery Plan for the Oxleyan Pygmy Perch
Arthington, A.H. and Marshall, C.J. 1993. Distribution, Ecology and Conservation of the Honey Blue-eye, Pseudomugil mellis, in south-eastern Queensland. Centre for Catchment and In-Stream Research, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland.
Distribution, Ecology and Conservation of the Honey Blue-eye, Pseudomugil mellis, in south-eastern Queensland
Auty, E.H. 1978. Reproductive behaviour and early development of the empire fish Hypseleotris compressus (Eleotridae). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 29: 585-597.
Reproductive behaviour and early development of the empire fish Hypseleotris compressus (Eleotridae)
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
29
 (pg. 
585
-
597
)
Battaglene, S.C. and Talbot, R.B. 1990. Initial swim bladder inflation in intensively reared Australian bass larvae, Macquaria novemaculeata (Steindachner) (Perciformes: Percichthyidae). Aquaculture 86: 431-442.
Initial swim bladder inflation in intensively reared Australian bass larvae, Macquaria novemaculeata (Steindachner) (Perciformes: Percichthyidae)
Aquaculture
, vol. 
86
 (pg. 
431
-
442
)
Blaxter, J.H.S. 1969. Development: eggs and larvae. Pp. 177-252 in Fish Physiology. Vol. III: Reproduction and Growth, Bioluminescence, Pigments, and Poisons. Ed by W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall. Academic Press, New York.
Fish Physiology. Vol. III: Reproduction and Growth, Bioluminescence, Pigments, and Poisons
(pg. 
177
-
252
)
Blaxter, J.H.S. 1988. Pattern and variety in development. Pp. 1-58 in Fish Physiology. Vol. XI: The Physiology of Developing Fish. Part A: Eggs and Larvae. Ed by W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall. Academic Press, San Diego.
Fish Physiology. Vol. XI: The Physiology of Developing Fish. Part A: Eggs and Larvae
(pg. 
1
-
58
)
Bond, N.R. and Lake, P.S. 2003. Characterising fish-habitat associations in streams as the first step in ecological restoration. Austral Ecology 28 611-621.
Characterising fish-habitat associations in streams as the first step in ecological restoration
Austral Ecology
, vol. 
28
 (pg. 
611
-
621
)
Briggs, G. 1999. Yarra pygmy perch Edelia obscura. Fishes of Sahul 13 (3): 638-641.
Yarra pygmy perc
Edelia obscura. Fishes of Sahul
, vol. 
13
 (pg. 
638
-
641
)
Brown, E and Neira, F.J. 1998. Percichthyidae: basses, perches and cods. Pp. 259-265 in Larvae of Temperate Australian Fishes: Laboratory Guide for Larval Fish Identification. Ed by F.J. Neira, A.G. Miskiewicz and T. Trnski. University of Western Australia Press, Perth.
Larvae of Temperate Australian Fishes: Laboratory Guide for Larval Fish Identification
(pg. 
259
-
265
)
Cadwallader, EL. and Rogan, EL. 1977. The Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica (Pisces: Percichthyidae), of Lake Eildon, Victoria. Australian Journal of Ecology 2: 409-418.
The Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica (Pisces: Percichthyidae), of Lake Eildon, Victoria
Australian Journal of Ecology
, vol. 
2
 (pg. 
409
-
418
)
Fisher, J.T. 1993. Variegated (Ewen's) pygmy perch Nannoperca variegata. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Flora and Fauna Action Statement No. 42, Victoria, Australia.
Fuiman, L.A., Eoling, K.R. and Higgs, D.M. 1998. Quantifying developmental progress for comparative studies of larval fishes. Copeia 1998 (3): 602-611.
Quantifying developmental progress for comparative studies of larval fishes
Copeia
, vol. 
1998
 (pg. 
602
-
611
)
Gill, H.S. and Morgan, D.L. 1998. Larval development of Nannatherina balstoni Regan (Nannopercidae), with a description of ontogenetic changes in diet. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 7: 132-139.
Larval development of Nannatherina balstoni Regan (Nannopercidae), with a description of ontogenetic changes in diet
Ecology of Freshwater Fish
, vol. 
7
 (pg. 
132
-
139
)
Gilligan, D. and Schiller, C. 2003. Downstream Transport of Larval and Juvenile Fish in the Murray River. NSW Fisheries, Final Report Series No. 50, NSW, Australia.
Downstream Transport of Larval and Juvenile Fish in the Murray River
Hammer, M. 2001. Molecular Systematics and Conservation Biology of the Southern pygmy perch Nannoperca australis (Günther, 1861) (Teleostei: Percichthyidae) in South-eastern Australia. BApplSc (Hon) Thesis, Adelaide University, South Australia.
Molecular Systematics and Conservation Biology of the Southern pygmy perch Nannoperca australis (Günther, 1861) (Teleostei: Percichthyidae) in South-eastern Australia
Hammer, M. 2002. Recovery Outline for the Southern pygmy perch in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. University of Adelaide and Native Fish Australia (SA) Inc, South Australia.
Recovery Outline for the Southern pygmy perch in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia
Harris, J.H. 1986. Reproduction of the Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata (Perciformes: Percichthyidae), in the Sydney Basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37: 209-235.
Reproduction of the Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata (Perciformes: Percichthyidae), in the Sydney Basin
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
37
 (pg. 
209
-
235
)
Harris, J.H. and Rowland, S.J. 1996. Australian freshwater cods and basses. Pp. 150-163 in Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Ed by R. McDowall. Reed Books, Chatswood, Australia.
Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia
(pg. 
150
-
163
)
Hoese, D.F., Bray, D.J., Eaxton, J.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Fishes. Australia Part 2, pp. xxi 671-1472 in Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 35. Ed. by PL. Beesley and A. Wells. ABRS and CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 35
(pg. 
671
-
1472
)
Howe, E. 1987. Breeding behaviour, egg surface morphology and embryonic development in four Australian species of the genus Pseudomugil (Pisces: Melanotaeniidae). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38: 885-895.
Breeding behaviour, egg surface morphology and embryonic development in four Australian species of the genus Pseudomugil (Pisces: Melanotaeniidae)
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
38
 (pg. 
885
-
895
)
Hughes, J., Eonniah, M., Hurwood, D., Chenoweth, S. and Arthington, A. 1999. Strong genetic structuring in a habitat specialist, the Oxleyan pygmy perch Nannoperca oxleyana. Heredity 83: 5-14.
Strong genetic structuring in a habitat specialist, the Oxleyan pygmy perc
Nannoperca oxleyana. Heredity
, vol. 
83
 (pg. 
5
-
14
)
Humphries, P. 1995. Life history, food and habitat of southern pygmy perch, Nannoperca australis, in the Macquarie River, Tasmania. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 46: 1159-1169.
Life history, food and habitat of southern pygmy perch, Nannoperca australis, in the Macquarie River, Tasmania
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
46
 (pg. 
1159
-
1169
)
Hunter, J.R. 1984. Synopsis of culture methods for marine fish larvae. Pp. 24-27 in Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, Special Publication No. 1. Ed by H.G. Moser, W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P Fahay, A.W. Kendall and S.L. Richardson. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Lawrence, Kansas.
Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes
(pg. 
24
-
27
)
Jerry, D.R., Elphinstone, M.S. and Baverstock, E.R. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Australian members of the family Percichthyidae inferred from mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18 (3): 335-347.
Phylogenetic relationships of Australian members of the family Percichthyidae inferred from mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence data
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
, vol. 
18
 (pg. 
335
-
347
)
Johnson, G.D. 1984. Percoidei: development and relationships. Pp. 464-498 in Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, Special Publication No. 1. Ed by H.G. Moser, W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P Fahay, A.W. Kendall and S.L. Richardson. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Lawrence, Kansas.
Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes
(pg. 
464
-
498
)
Kendall, A.W., Ahlstrom, E.H. and Moser, H.G. 1984. Early life history stages of fishes and their characters. Pp. 11-22 in Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, Special Publication No. 1. Ed by H.G. Moser, W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P. Fahay, A.W. Kendall and S.L. Richardson. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Lawrence, Kansas.
Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes
(pg. 
11
-
22
)
Knight, J.T. 2000. Distribution, Population Structure and Habitat Preferences of the Oxleyan pygmy perch Nannoperca oxleyana (Whitley 1940) near Evans Head, North-eastern New South Wales. BApplSc (Hons) Thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.
Distribution, Population Structure and Habitat Preferences of the Oxleyan pygmy perch Nannoperca oxleyana (Whitley 1940) near Evans Head, North-eastern New South Wales
Knight, J.T. in press. Distribution and Conservation Status of the Endangered Oxleyan pygmy perch Nannoperca oxleyana Whitley in New South Wales. Department of Industry and Investment NSW, Fisheries Final Report Series.
Knight, J.T. and Arthington, A.H. 2008. Distribution and habitat associations of the endangered Oxleyan pygmy perch, Nannoperca oxleyana Whitley, in eastern Australia. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18: 1240-1254.
Distribution and habitat associations of the endangered Oxleyan pygmy perch, Nannoperca oxleyana Whitley, in eastern Australia
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
, vol. 
18
 (pg. 
1240
-
1254
)
Knight, J.T., Butler, G., Smith, E. and Wager, R. 2007. Reproductive biology of the endangered Oxleyan pygmy perch Nannoperca oxleyana Whitley. Journal of Fish Biology 71: 1494-1511.
Reproductive biology of the endangered Oxleyan pygmy perch Nannoperca oxleyana Whitley
Journal of Fish Biology
, vol. 
71
 (pg. 
1494
-
1511
)
Knight, J.T., Nock, C.J., Elphinstone, M.S. and Baverstock, E.R. 2009. Conservation implications of distinct genetic structuring in an endangered freshwater fish, Nannoperca oxleyana (Percichthyidae). Marine and Freshwater Research. 60: 34-44
Conservation implications of distinct genetic structuring in an endangered freshwater fish, Nannoperca oxleyana (Percichthyidae)
Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
60
 (pg. 
34
-
44
)
Koehn, J.D. and O'Connor, W.G. 1990. Biological Information for Management of Native Freshwater Fish in Victoria. Victorian Government Printing Office, Australia.
Biological Information for Management of Native Freshwater Fish in Victoria
Kuiter, R.H. and Allen, G.R. 1986. A synopsis of the Australian pygmy perches (Percichthyidae), with the description of a new species. Revue Francaise Aquariologie 12 (4): 109-116.
A synopsis of the Australian pygmy perches (Percichthyidae), with the description of a new species
Revue Francaise Aquariologie
, vol. 
12
 (pg. 
109
-
116
)
Kuiter, R.H., Humphries, E.A. and Arthington, A.H. 1996. Family Nannopercidae: Pygmy perches. Pp. 168-175 in Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia. Ed by R. McDowall. Reed Books, Sydney.
Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia
(pg. 
168
-
175
)
Lake, J.S. 1967. Rearing experiments with five species of Australian freshwater fishes. II. Morphogenesis and ontogeny. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 18: 155-173.
Rearing experiments with five species of Australian freshwater fishes. II. Morphogenesis and ontogeny
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
18
 (pg. 
155
-
173
)
Leggett, R. 1990. A fish in danger - Nannoperca oxleyana. Fishes of Sahul 6 (1): 247-249.
A fish in danger
Nannoperca oxleyana. Fishes of Sahul
, vol. 
6
 (pg. 
247
-
249
)
Leggett, R. and Merrick, J.R. 1987. Australian Native Fishes for Aquariums. Griffin Press Limited, Netley, South Australia.
Australian Native Fishes for Aquariums
Leis, J.M. and Carson-Ewart, B.M. (Eds) 2004. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Coastal Fishes. 2nd Edn. Brill, Leiden.
Leis, J.M. and Trnski, T. 2004. Percichthyidae: Australian Freshwater Basses, Perches and Cods. Available: www.amonline.net.au/larval_fishes.
Llewellyn, L.C. 1971. Breeding studies on the freshwater forage fish of the Murray-Darling River System. Fisherman 3 (13): 1-12.
Breeding studies on the freshwater forage fish of the Murray-Darling River System
Fisherman
, vol. 
3
 (pg. 
1
-
12
)
Llewellyn, L.C. 1974. Spawning, development and distribution of the southern pygmy perch Nannoperca australis australis Günther from inland waters of eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 25: 121-149.
Spawning, development and distribution of the southern pygmy perch Nannoperca australis australis Günther from inland waters of eastern Australia
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
25
 (pg. 
121
-
149
)
Matarese, A.C. and Sandknop, E.M. 1984. Identification of fish eggs. Pp. 27-31 in Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, Special Publication No. 1. Ed by H.G. Moser, W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P. Fahay, A.W. Kendall and S.L. Richardson. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Lawrence, Kansas.
Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes
(pg. 
27
-
31
)
Milton, D.A. and Arthington, A.H. 1983. Reproductive biology of Gambusia affinis holbrooki Baird and Girard, Xiphophorus helleri (Gunther) and X. maculatus (Heckel) (Pisces: Poeciliidae) in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Fish Biology 23: 23-41.
Reproductive biology of Gambusia affinis holbrooki Baird and Girard, Xiphophorus helleri (Gunther) and X. maculatus (Heckel) (Pisces: Poeciliidae) in Queensland, Australia
Journal of Fish Biology
, vol. 
23
 (pg. 
23
-
41
)
Morgan, D.L. and Beatty, S. 2000. Breeding of Western pygmy perch Edelia vittata. Report to Fisheries WA, Murdoch University, Western Australia.
Edelia vittata. Report to Fisheries WA
Morgan, D.L. Gill, H.S. and Potter, I.C. 1995. Life cycle, growth and diet of Balston's pygmy perch in its natural habitat of acidic pools in south-western Australia. Journal of Fish Biology 4: 808-825.
Life cycle, growth and diet of Balston's pygmy perch in its natural habitat of acidic pools in south-western Australia
Journal of Fish Biology
, vol. 
4
 (pg. 
808
-
825
)
Neira, F.J., Miskiewicz, A.G. and Trnski, T. (Eds) 1998. Larvae of Temperate Australian Fishes: Laboratory Guide for Larval Fish Identification. University of Western Australia Press, Perth.
Larvae of Temperate Australian Fishes: Laboratory Guide for Larval Fish Identification
NSW Department of Primary Industries. 2005. Oxleyan pygmy perch: Recovery Plan and Background Paper. NSW Department of Primary Industries Fisheries Management Branch, NSW, Australia.
Oxleyan pygmy perch: Recovery Plan and Background Paper
Pen, L.J. and Potter, I.C. 1990. Biology of the nightfish, Bostockia porosa Castelnau, in a south-western Australian river. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41: 627-645.
Biology of the nightfish, Bostockia porosa Castelnau, in a south-western Australian river
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
41
 (pg. 
627
-
645
)
Pen, L.J. and Potter, I.C. 1991. Biology of the western pygmy perch, Edelia vittata, and comparisons with two other teleost species endemic to south-western Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 31: 365-380.
Biology of the western pygmy perch, Edelia vittata, and comparisons with two other teleost species endemic to south-western Australia
Environmental Biology of Fishes
, vol. 
31
 (pg. 
365
-
380
)
Pen, L.J., Potter, I.C. and Calver, M.C. 1993. Comparisons of the food niches of three native and two introduced fish species in an Australian River. Environmental Biology of Fishes 36: 167-182.
Comparisons of the food niches of three native and two introduced fish species in an Australian River
Environmental Biology of Fishes
, vol. 
36
 (pg. 
167
-
182
)
Pollard, D.A. 1971. The biology of a landlocked form of the normally catadromous salmoniform fish Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns). I. Life cycle and origin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 22: 91-123.
The biology of a landlocked form of the normally catadromous salmoniform fish Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns). I. Life cycle and origin
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
22
 (pg. 
91
-
123
)
Pusey, B.J., Kennard, M. and Arthington, A.H. 2004. Freshwater Fishes of North-eastern Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia.
Freshwater Fishes of North-eastern Australia
Rowland, S.J. 1996. Development of techniques for the large-scale rearing of the larvae of the Australian freshwater fish golden perch, Macquaria ambigua (Richardson, 1845). Marine and Freshwater Research 47: 233-243.
Development of techniques for the large-scale rearing of the larvae of the Australian freshwater fish golden perch, Macquaria ambigua (Richardson, 1845)
Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
47
 (pg. 
233
-
243
)
Semple, G. 1986. Pseudomugil signifer - maintenance, reproduction and early development of the Pacific blue-eye. Fishes of Sahul 3 (3): 121-125.
Pseudomugil signifer - maintenance, reproduction and early development of the Pacific blue-eye
Fishes of Sahul
, vol. 
3
 (pg. 
121
-
125
)
Semple, G. 1991. Reproductive behaviour and early development of the honey blue-eye, Pseudomugil mellis Allen and Ivantsoff 1982 (Pisces: Pseudomugilidae), from the North-east Coast Division, south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 42: 277-286.
Reproductive behaviour and early development of the honey blue-eye, Pseudomugil mellis Allen and Ivantsoff 1982 (Pisces: Pseudomugilidae), from the North-east Coast Division, south-eastern Queensland, Australia
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
, vol. 
42
 (pg. 
277
-
286
)
Shipway, B. 1949. Notes on the natural history of the pygmy perch (Nannoperca vittata). The Western Australian Naturalist 2 (1): 1-9.
Notes on the natural history of the pygmy perc
(Nannoperca vittata). The Western Australian Naturalist
, vol. 
2
 (pg. 
1
-
9
)
Trnski, T., Hay, A.C. and Fielder, D.S. 2005. Larval development of estuary perch (Macquaria colonorum) and Australian bass (M. novemaculeata) (Perciformes: Percichthyidae), and comments on their life history. Fishery Bulletin 103 (1): 183-194.
Larval development of estuary perch (Macquaria colonorum) and Australian bass (M. novemaculeata) (Perciformes: Percichthyidae), and comments on their life history
Fishery Bulletin
, vol. 
103
 (pg. 
183
-
194
)
Wager, R. 1992. The Oxleyan pygmy perch: maintaining breeding populations. Fishes of Sahul 7 (2): 310-312.
The Oxleyan pygmy perch: maintaining breeding populations
Fishes of Sahul
, vol. 
7
 (pg. 
310
-
312
)
Whitley, G.P. 1940. Illustrations of some Australian fishes. Australian Zoologist 9 (4): 397-428.
Illustrations of some Australian fishes
Australian Zoologist
, vol. 
9
 (pg. 
397
-
428
)
This content is only available as a PDF.