Intra-specific communication in anuran amphibians is primarily achieved with vocal signals (Duellman and Trueb 1994). However, some species also use visual displays for interand/ or intra-sexual communication (Hodl and Amezquita 2001). Such displays include movement of the fore and/ or hindlimbs (e.g. hand-waving, foot-flagging and/or legflicking), movement of the body or posturing, and exhibition of a brightly coloured vocal sac (Hodl and Amezquita 2001; Hirschmann and Hodl 2006). Visual signalling is hypothesised to be an alternative or complementary mode of communication in anurans used under certain environmental and/or social conditions (e.g. in noisy or visually complex environments) (Amezquita and Hodl 2004).

Amezquita, A. and Hödl, W. 2004. How, when and where to perform visual displays: the case of the Amazonian frog Hyla parviceps. Herpetologica 60: 420-429
How, when and where to perform visual displays: the case of the Amazonian frog Hyla parviceps
Herpetologica
, vol. 
60
 (pg. 
420
-
429
)
Duellman, W.E. and Trueb, L. 1994. Biology of Amphibians. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Biology of Amphibians
Hirschmann, W. and Hödl, W. 2006. Visual signalling in Phrynobatrachus krefftii. Herpetologica 62: 18-27.
Visual signalling in Phrynobatrachus krefftii
Herpetologica
, vol. 
62
 (pg. 
18
-
27
)
Hödl, W. and Amezquita, A. 2001. Visual signalling in anuran amphibians, Pp. 121-141 In Anuran Communication edited by M. Ryan. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington.
Anuran Communication
(pg. 
121
-
141
)
Pough, F.H. , Magnusson, W.E., Ryan, M.J., Wells, K.D., and Taigen, T.L. 1992. Behavioural energetics, Pp. 395-436 In Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians edited by M.E. Feder and W.B. Burggren. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Environmental Physiology of the Amphibians
(pg. 
395
-
436
)
Richards, S.C., Hoskin, C.J., Cunningham, M.J., McDonald, K.R. and Donnellan, S.C. 2010. Taxonomic re-assessment of the Australian and New Guinean green-eyed treefrogs Litoria eucnemis, L. genimaculata and L. serrata (Anura: Hylidae). Zootaxa, 2391: 33-46.
Taxonomic re-assessment of the Australian and New Guinean green-eyed treefrogs Litoria eucnemis, L. genimaculata and L. serrata (Anura: Hylidae)
Zootaxa
, vol. 
2391
 (pg. 
33
-
46
)
Richards, S.J. and James, C. 1992. Foot-flagging displays of some Australian frogs. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 32: 302.
Foot-flagging displays of some Australian frogs
Memoirs of the Queensland Museum
, vol. 
32
 pg. 
302
 
This content is only available as a PDF.