Systematic (time constrained) and targeted surveys were conducted from 1996-2014 for the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea on the Crookhaven River floodplain, east of Nowra on the south coast of New South Wales. In April 2008, a large number of metamorphlings were observed at Brundee Swamp Nature Reserve. This was followed by a significant recruitment of frogs so that by February 2010 L. aurea were recorded breeding nearby in Worrigee and Terara Swamps. At the end of April 2010 tens of thousands of metamorphling L. aurea dispersed from these wetlands across the floodplain. So-called explosive breeding events have been reported for this species before but never have they been documented. In December 2010 L. aurea again bred in Worrigee (and presumably Terara Swamp) and in early April 2011 adult and sub-adult animals appeared to have dispersed a distance of approximately 4 km south-west and 11 km to the south-east of Brundee Swamp. This expansion in distribution and abundance resulted in the recolonisation of historic L. aurea sites at Culburra and colonisation of other parts of the catchments where the species was never previously recorded. The recovery was not sustained and from March 2013 to March 2014 the species had declined in abundance and distribution. Most of the recorded breeding occurred in ephemeral wetlands: dispersal from these sites involved movements over highly modified rural and urban landscapes. Refuge sites populated outside the breeding events were strongly associated with stands of Cumbungi Typha spp. in drainage systems. These observations illustrate that historic and potential habitat of L. aurea should not be disregarded, even if the species has been absent for a considerable period. More effective management of L. aurea by government agencies requires a whole of landscape approach.

Berger, L., Speare, R. and Hyatt, A. (1999). Chytrid fungi and amphibian declines: Overview, implications and future directions. In Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Campbell, A. (ed.). Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs
Bower and Goldingay (1998). Management for the green and golden bell frog at Butterfly Road quarry, Currambene State Forest, NSW.
Braithwaite, L. W., Austin, M. P., Margules, C. R., Catling, P. C. and Bedward, M. (1988). Jervis Bay Flora and Fauna. Survey and Assessment of specific site for the Jervis Bay Armament Depot Environmental Impact Assessment.
Blackley, R., Usback, S., and Langford, K. (eds) (1996). A Dictionary of Important Wetland in Australia. ANCA, Canberra.
A Dictionary of Important Wetland in Australia
Christy, M. T. and Dickman, C. R. (2002). Effects of salinity on tadpoles of the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). Amphibia-Reptilia Vol: 23.: 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853802320877582
Coyne, P. C., Hinchey, M. D. and Jenkins, R. W. G. (1979). Beecroft Peninsula. A survey of the Natural resources of Department of Defence controlled land. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Dalmazzo, P., Laing, J. and The Shoalhaven Remnant Vegetation Committee (2000). Remnant Vegetation Management Plan, Brundee Swamp. Unpublished report to the City of Shoalhaven, NSW.
Daly, G. and Leonard, G. (1996). Fauna and flora of Long Bow Point, Culburra Shoalhaven City. Report prepared for Reality Realisation.
Daly, G., Pennay, P. and Coombes, D. 2002. Surveys for the stuttering frog Mixophyes balbus on the south coast of New South Wales. Herpetofauna 32: 110-130.
Surveys for the stuttering frog Mixophyes balbus on the south coast of New South Wales
Herpetofauna
, vol. 
32
 (pg. 
110
-
130
)
Daly, G. (1995). Observations on the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea (Anuran: Hylidae). Herpetofauna 25: 2-9.
Observations on the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea (Anuran: Hylidae)
Herpetofauna
, vol. 
25
 (pg. 
2
-
9
)
Daly, G. (1996). Some problems in the management of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae) at Coomonderry Swamp on the south coast of New South Wales. In The Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea Biology and Conservation (Editors G. H. Pyke and W. S. Osborne). Australian Zoologist 30: 233-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.1996.017
Daly, G. (2000). Island populations: Survey of the reptiles and amphibians of the Jervis Bay region on the south coast of NSW. Herpetofauna 30: 11-17.
Island populations: Survey of the reptiles and amphibians of the Jervis Bay region on the south coast of NSW
Herpetofauna
, vol. 
30
 (pg. 
11
-
17
)
Daly, G. 2006. Reptiles and frogs in the region of Morton National Park on the south coast of NSW. Herpetofauna 36: 5-24.
Reptiles and frogs in the region of Morton National Park on the south coast of NSW
Herpetofauna
, vol. 
36
 (pg. 
5
-
24
)
Daly, G. 2007. Reptiles and frogs in the region of Wadbilliga National Park on the south coast of NSW. Herpetofauna 37: 47-64.
Reptiles and frogs in the region of Wadbilliga National Park on the south coast of NSW
Herpetofauna
, vol. 
37
 (pg. 
47
-
64
)
Daly, G. and Craven, P. (2007). Monitoring populations of Heath Frog Litoria littlejohni on the south coast of NSW.Australian Zoologist 34: 165-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2011.036
Daly, G. and Craven, P. (2010). The disappearance of the Stuttering Frog Mixophyes balbus at Macquarie Pass National Park New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 35: 846-852.
The disappearance of the Stuttering Frog Mixophyes balbus at Macquarie Pass National Park New South Wales
Australian Zoologist
, vol. 
35
 (pg. 
846
-
852
)
Daly, G. and Craven, P. and Hyatt, A. (2008). Surveys for the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea at Meroo National Park on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 34: 303 -313. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2008.008
Daly, G. and Senior, C. (2003). Surveys for and habitat assessment of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea on the far south coast of New South Wales. Herpetofauna 33: 86-102.
Surveys for and habitat assessment of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea on the far south coast of New South Wales
Herpetofauna
, vol. 
33
 (pg. 
86
-
102
)
Daly, G., Parsons, A., Jessup, H, Zubovic, A., and Hyatt, A. (2009). Survey of the amphibians in the Dharawal reserves on the south coast of New South Wales. Herpetofauna 39: 28-42.
Survey of the amphibians in the Dharawal reserves on the south coast of New South Wales
Herpetofauna
, vol. 
39
 (pg. 
28
-
42
)
Department of Environment and Conservation (2004). Threatened Species Survey and Assessment: Guidelines for developments and activities (working draft), New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage, Hurstville, NSW.
Department of Environment and Climate Change (2007). Management plan for the Green and Golden Bell Frog key population within the Crookhaven River floodplain. Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney.
Department of Environment and Climate Change (2008). Information Circular No. 6. Hygiene Protocol for the control of Diseases in Frogs. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, Sydney.
Department of Environment and Conservation NSW (2005). Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea (Lesson 1829) Draft Recovery Plan. DEC NSW Recovery Planning Unit, Hurstville, NSW.
Gaia Research (2007). Review of environmental factors Part 5 assessment for the improvement of drainage, Worrigee/Isa Road, Worrigee. Report prepared for Shoalhaven City Council.
Gaia Research (2008a). “Targeted Surveys for threatened & rare frogs Heleioporus australiacus, Litoria aurea, Mixophyes balbus, Pseudophryne australis and Litoria caerulea in the DECC South Coast Region of NSW”. Report prepared for the Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, Parks and Wildlife Group, South Coast Region, Nowra.
Gaia Research (2008b). Monitoring Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea populations at Meroo National Park, Barnunj State Conservation Area, Brundee Swamp Nature Reserve, and Conjola National Park. Report prepared for the Foundation for National Parks and Wildlife and Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, Nowra.
Gaia Research (2009a). Targeted Fauna Surveys of Worrigee Nature Reserve, Brundee Swamp Nature Reserve and Saltwater Swamp Nature Reserve, Nowra. Report prepared for the Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, Parks and Wildlife Group, Nowra Area, Nowra. Report prepared for the Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, Parks and Wildlife Group, Nowra Area, Nowra.
Gaia Research (2009b). Assessment of habitat and management of sites in Jervis Bay National Park for Green and Golden Bell Frog. Report prepared for the Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, Parks and Wildlife Group, Nowra Area, Nowra.
Gaia Research (2010a). Status of the Green and Golden Bell Frog in the Crookhaven River Area, Nowra. Report prepared for the Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, Hurstville NSW.
Gaia Research (2010b). Supplementary assessment of the impacts of the proposed works to modify the drainage at the intersection of Worrigee Road and Isa Road, Worrigee on the Green and Golden Bell Frog. Report prepared for Shoalhaven City Council.
Gaia Research (2010c). Supplementary assessment of the impacts of the proposed development Lot 2 D.P. 1131675, Worrigee Road, Worrigee in relation to the Green and Golden Bell Frog. South Coast Community Housing Ltd.
Gaia Research (2011). Review of environmental factors for the Green and Golden Bell Frog in the drains and parks in the Brundee-Terara-Worrigee area. Report prepared for Shoalhaven City Council.
Gaia Research (2014). Ecological monitoring of the T4 Brundee offset site, Nowra NSW. Report prepared for Port Waratah Coal Services.
Goldingay, R.L. and Newell, D.A. (2005). Population estimation of the green and golden bell frog at Port Kembla. Australian Zoologist 33: 210-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2005.017
Grenadier, L. and Mahony, M. (2000). Management plan for the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea at Culburra. Report prepared for Shoalhaven City Council and NSW National parks and Wildlife service.
Harrison, L. (1922-5). On the breeding habits of some Australian frogs. Australian Zoologist 3: 1-26.
On the breeding habits of some Australian frogs
Australian Zoologist
, vol. 
3
 (pg. 
1
-
26
)
Hazelton, P. A. (1993). Kiama soil landscape series sheet 9028. New South Wales Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Kiama soil landscape series sheet 9028
Hyatt, A. D., Boyle, D. G., Olsen V., Berger, L. and 10 others (2007). Diagnostic assays and sampling protocols for the detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases in Aquatic Organisms 73: 175-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao073175
Kriger, K. M. and Hero, J.-M. (2006). Large-scale seasonal variation in the prevalence and severity of chytridiomycosis. Journal of Zoology 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00220.x
Kinhill Knight (1996). Lake Wollumboola Estuary Management Plan. Report prepared for Shoalhaven City Council.
National Parks and Wildlife Service (2008). Brundee Swamp Nature Reserve and Saltwater Swamp Nature Reserve Plan of Management. South Coast Region of the National Parks and Wildlife Service. ISBN 1 74122 301 0.
National Parks and Wildlife Service (1997). NSW Comprehensive regional assessments: Vertebrate fauna surveys, 1997-1998 summer survey season: Field survey methods. Unpublished report by NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Osborne, W. S., Patmore, S., Hunter, D. and Pietsch, R. (2008). Preliminary observations on a highly-restricted tableland population of Green and Golden Bell frogs on the Upper Molonglo River, NSW. Australian Zoologist 34: 271 -284. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2008.004
Penman, T. D., Muir G. W., Magarey, E. R. and Burns, E. L. (2008). Impact of a chytrid-related mortality event on a population of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea. Australian Zoologist 34: 314-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2008.009
Pyke, G. H., and White, A.W. (2001). A review of the biology of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea. Australian Zoologist 31: 563-598. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2001.003
Pyke, G. H., White, A.W., Bishop, P.J. and Waldman, B. (2002). Habitat-use by the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea in Australia and New Zealand. Australian Zoologist 32: 12-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2002.002
Simpson, C. Keith, D., Tozer, M & Rodoreda, S. (2006). Vegetation Survey of Brundee Swamp Nature Reserve and Saltwater Swamp Nature Reserve. Department of Environment and Conservation.
Vegetation Survey of Brundee Swamp Nature Reserve and Saltwater Swamp Nature Reserve
Stockwell, M. P., Clulow, S., Clulow, J., and Mahony, M. (2008). The impact of the Australian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, on the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea reintroduction program at the Hunter Wetlands Centre, Australia, in the Hunter Region of NSW. Australian Zoologist 34: 379-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2008.015
Thomas, V., Gellie, N. and Harrison, T. (2000). Forest ecosystem classification and mapping for the southern CRA. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Southern Directorate. A report undertaken for the NSW CRA/RFA Steering Committee Project number NS 08EH.
Threlfall, C.G., Jolly, D. E., Evershed, N., Goldlingay, R. L. and Buttemer, W. A. (2008). Do Green and Golden Bell Frogs Litoria aurea occupy habitats with fungicidal properties? Australian Zoologist 34: 350-360. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2008.012
Umwelt Pty Ltd (2013). Ecological monitoring of the Brundee offset site, Brundee NSW. Report prepared for Port Waratah Coal Services.
White, A. W. and Pyke, G. H. (1996). Distribution and conservation status of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 30: 177-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.1996.010
White, A. W. and Pyke, G. H. (2008). Green and Golden Bell Frogs in New South Wales: current status and future prospects Australian Zoologist 34: 319-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/az.2008.010
This content is only available as a PDF.