Surveys were conducted for the Red-crowned Toadlet Pseudophryne australis in Burragorang State Conservation Area (SCA), Nattai National Park (NP), Thirlmere Lakes NP and the Upper Nepean SCA west of Sydney, New South Wales using a variety of methods. Scattered populations of Pseudophryne australis were detected by the presence of tadpoles and calling males in a range of vegetation communities. These communities included escarpment grey gum forest, exposed Burragorang sandstone shrub woodland, Nattai sandstone dry shrub forest, sheltered sandstone intermediate blue gum forest and Nepean gorge moist forest. All detections were within non-perennial creeks on Hawkesbury or Mittagong sandstones or enriched soils derived from these sandstones. The number of calling frogs at sites ranged from one to about 400. Nine 250 m transects were surveyed at night for 30 min each and 0–36 adult frogs were detected during these searches. Diurnal searches were conducted for tadpoles and adult frogs by using the ‘shout’ method. Tadpoles were observed at five sites, three of which had calling males. Nocturnal drive searches for calling frogs were conducted involving approximately 60 km over all the reserves. At one site P. australis bred in habitat highly modified by human disturbance. This site was an ephemeral pond formed by sand that had been bulldozed over a creek. Although the populations were within the reservation system the habitat connection between some reserves was narrow and subject to development pressures. The results of the surveys modified control burns to exclude breeding sites and retain leaf litter.

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