A breeding population of Western Red-tailed Cockatoos Calyptorhynchus escondidus was studied between July 1974 and December 1981 at Nereeno Hill, in the northern wheatbelt of Western Australia. Egg-laying occurred during two clearly defined periods each year; with peaks mid-March to mid-April (Autumn breeding) and early-August to mid-October (Spring breeding). Thirty-two percent of the 459 eggs laid during the study were laid in Autumn and 68% in Spring. Growth rates of nestling wings and body mass were similar between seasons and years. Nearly one third of breeding attempts failed during incubation and 40.7% successfully fledged a nestling. Fledgling survival in the first year was low (17.5%), however, annual survival was higher after the first year; 80.0% after four years. Birds were killed by Wedge-tailed Eagles Aquila audax, shot by farmers, and drowned in stock troughs. Based on evidence from one individually-marked pair, Western Red-tailed Cockatoos may form long lasting pair bonds. While females breed every 12 months, some have bred in both Autumn and Spring seasons. Young Red-tailed Cockatoos remain with their parents up to two years after fledging, and adults may have young from two breeding seasons accompanying them. The breeding biology of Red-tailed Cockatoos is compared with that of closely related species from the genera Calyptorhynchus and Zanda. Threats to the species are loss of mature hollow-bearing trees and almost complete dependence on the seeds of Double Gee Emex australis, an introduced agricultural weed, for food.