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The bat fauna of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is more diverse than that of Australia, yet knowledge of the distribution and ecology of PNG's 57 microchiropteran species is particularly poor, almost a third being known from five or less localities. The lack of knowledge is partly due to problems with use of both mist nets and harp traps in PNG. Bat detectors may help overcome some of these problems, however, they have not been widely used in PNG primarily due to the lack of a body of reference calls to aid species identification. Using the Anabat system, we recorded 744 reference echolocation call sequences from eight microchiropteran species captured in PNG. Calls were analysed using Analook software and described. The characteristic frequency of the predominant harmonics were: Aselliscus tricuspidatus112-113 kHz; Hipposideros cervinus136.5-138 kHz; H. diadema54-59 kHz; H. maggietaylorae121-123 kHz; Mormopterus cf. beccarii44-50 kHz; Mosia nigrescens45-60 kHz; Rhinolophus arcuatus70-72 kHz; and Rhinolophus euryotis52-56 kHz. Comparison with published calls of some of these species from Australia, south-east Asia and elsewhere in PNG suggest regional variations occur within PNG and abroad and/or that there are taxonomic issues such as cryptic species. This emphasises the need for far greater collection of reference echolocation calls, the development of regional PNG call libraries with vouchered specimens and cautions against using reference libraries developed in Australia or elsewhere.

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