In serum, tracheal wash fluid, and bile from chickens that were inoculated with live or inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the kinetics and immunoglobulin (Ig) class distribution of an antibody response were demonstrated. The Ig classes (IgM, IgG, and IgA) were captured using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Ig-capture ELISA). The antibody specificity of the captured Ig was confirmed by binding of NDV. After inoculation with live virus, antibodies of the IgG and IgM classes were mainly found in serum. IgM was produced early from day 4 postexposure (PE) onward, IgG was detected later from day 7 PE onward, and in the tracheal wash fluid and bile, all three Ig classes were demonstrated. After inoculation of inactivated virus, a delayed response of all three classes was observed in serum, and only IgM and IgG were recognized in the tracheal fluid and bile.

The type of vaccine and the route of antigen entrance may have determined the immunoglobulin class produced. The Ig-capture ELISA assay developed in this study can be useful for evaluating various strategies to improve the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines and to study the evoked immune mechanisms.

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