Sera samples from seven poultry farms in southwest Nigeria consisting of 7 broiler, 10 pullet, 1 layer, 1 cockerel, and 1 broiler breeder flocks were tested for the presence of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Eleven of the 20 flocks (55%) and six out of seven (86%) farms were positive for CIAV antibodies. The seroprevalence largely depended on the age of the flocks. Seroprevalence was higher within the older pullet and layer flocks (83%–100%) than in the younger broiler flocks (0%–83%). In essence, all flocks older than 6 to 8 wk became infected. This is the first report of serologic evidence of CIAV in Subsaharan Africa. Since Southwest Nigeria is the main port of entry of imported chicken and the hub of major poultry breeders, the disease can probably be found throughout the country and beyond. Further studies are necessary to assess economic losses due to CIAV and the cost benefit of countermeasures.

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