The pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes strain Scott A was studied by challenging day-old male turkey poults by air sac inoculation with tryptose phosphate broth containing 100 cfu (control), 104, 105, and 106 cfu (low challenge), or 107 and 108 cfu (high challenge) of the Scott A (serotype 4b) strain of L. monocytogenes. Mortality at 2 wk postinfection (PI) ranged from 25% for low challenge to 100% for high challenge (P = 0.0001). Gross and histopathological lesions were observed in heart, liver, spleen, lung, and bursa of Fabricius of mortalities at 4 days PI. Listeria monocytogenes challenge resulted in significantly decreased relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and increased relative weight of the spleen, and L. monocytogenes was isolated by direct plating of liver, pericardium, brain, and both left and right stifle joint synovium (knee) cultures, as well as gall bladder, yolk sac, and cecal tonsil from transfer swabs onto Listeria-selective agar. Isolates were confirmed as positive using Gram stain, biochemical tests, and the Biolog system. High challenge resulted in confirmed L. monocytogenes isolation from 48% of left knee and 59% of right knee cultures. Low challenge resulted in isolation of L. monocytogenes from 11% of both left and right knee cultures. These results suggest that L. monocytogenes Scott A colonization of turkey knee synovial tissue can initiate in day-of-age poults and that L. monocytogenes Scott A can be invasive through air sac infection.