The participatory disease surveillance and response (PDSR) approach to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Indonesia has evolved significantly from the participatory disease surveillance (PDS) system developed for rinderpest eradication in Africa and Pakistan. The first phase of the PDSR project emphasized the detection and control of HPAI by separate PDS and participatory disease response teams primarily in sector 4 poultry at the household level. Lessons learned during the first phase were taken into account in the design of the second phase of the project, which has sought to further strengthen management of disease prevention and control activities by improving technical approaches, increasing active participation of key stakeholders, including local and central governments, and focusing on the village level. The ongoing evolution of the PDSR program aims to establish a sustainable community-based program within provincial and district livestock services that enhances the prevention and control of not only HPAI, but also other zoonotic and priority animal diseases.

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