Avian poxvirus (APV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that affects many domestic and wild birds worldwide. APVs are classified into three clades (A to C), represented by fowlpox (FP) virus (clade A), canarypox virus (clade B), and psittacinepox virus (clade C), although two additional clades (D and E) have been proposed. In this study, a tumorlike skin lesion found in a domestic fowl was submitted for molecular diagnosis of Avipoxvirus by PCR and sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the amplified segment of the corelike 4b protein and polymerase genes clustered in clade E. The APVs in clade E were previously reported from outbreaks in Hungary (flock of turkeys) and in Mozambique (layer chickens), associated with a possible vaccine failure to protect against clade E viruses. To our knowledge, this report is the first identification of clade E in this country, providing new information about host range and genetic diversity of APVs in Brazil, and may represent a potential risk of FP disease outbreaks in commercial poultry.

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