The control of poultry diseases has relied heavily on the use of many live and inactivated vaccines. However, over the last 30 yr, recombinant DNA technology has been used to generate many novel poultry vaccines. Fowlpox virus and turkey herpesvirus are the two main vectors currently used to construct recombinant vaccines for poultry. With the use of these two vectors, more than 15 recombinant viral vector vaccines against Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, infectious bursal disease, avian influenza, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum have been developed and are commercially available. This review focuses on current knowledge about the safety and efficacy of recombinant viral vectored vaccines and the mechanisms by which they facilitate the control of multiple diseases. Additionally, the development of new recombinant vaccines with novel vectors will be briefly discussed.

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