Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is associated with upper respiratory disease, joint, and reproductive system disease in poultry. Economic losses are due to stunting, increased mortality, lower egg production, and higher slaughterhouse condemnations. The seroprevalence of MS is increasing worldwide, and more pathogenic strains have emerged over the past few years. Where this increase is noted, the economic consequences are considerable, even when there are no obvious clinical signs. The best control strategy is to maintain mycoplasma-free flocks. Since 2014 in Quebec, Canada, MS has been isolated with greater frequency in poultry farms and at times, as a primary pathogenic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and impact of MS in commercial poultry farms in Quebec because the poultry industry was considering an insurance program that would cover losses in case of an outbreak. MS was shown to be present in all types of commercial production, although egg layers were principally affected with over 50% of flocks sampled being MS-positive in all producing regions of the province. On the basis of vlhA gene sequencing, several strains were identified with the most prevalent ones being type E, followed by Qc-1, a strain specific to Quebec. On average, the impact of MS on production parameters were not significant for any of the different types of commercial poultry production.

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