The different technology platforms used to make poultry vaccines are reviewed. Vaccines based on classical technologies are either live attenuated or inactivated vaccines. Genetic engineering is applied to design by deletion, mutation, insertion, or chimerization, genetically modified target microorganisms that are used either as live or inactivated vaccines. Other vaccine platforms are based on one or a few genes of the target pathogen agent coding for proteins that can induce a protective immune response (“protective genes”). These genes can be expressed in vitro to produce subunit vaccines. Alternatively, vectors carrying these genes in their genome or nucleic acid–based vaccines will induce protection by in vivo expression of these genes in the vaccinated host. Properties of these different types of vaccines, including advantages and limitations, are reviewed, focusing mainly on vaccines targeting viral diseases and on technologies that succeeded in market authorization.

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