The complexity of influenza A virus (IAV) infections in avian hosts leads to equally complex scenarios for the vaccination of poultry. Vaccination against avian influenza strains can be used to prevent infections from sources with a single strain of IAV. It has been used as a part of outbreak control strategies as well as a way to maintain production for both low and high pathogenicity outbreaks. Unlike other viral pathogens of birds, avian influenza vaccination when used against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, is tied to international trade and thus is not freely available for use without specific permission.

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