The poultry industry is the largest source of meat and eggs for the growing human population worldwide. Key concerns in poultry farming are nutrition, management, flock health, and biosecurity measures. As part of the flock health, use of live viral vaccines plays a vital role in the prevention of economically important and common viral diseases. This includes diseases and production losses caused by Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, Marek’s disease virus, chicken infectious anemia virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, fowlpox virus, and avian metapneumovirus. These viruses cause direct and indirect harms, such as financial losses worth millions of dollars, loss of protein sources, and threats to animal welfare. Flock losses vary by type of poultry, age of affected animals, co-infections, immune status, and environmental factors. Losses in broiler birds can consist of high mortality, poor body weight gain, high feed conversion ratio, and increased carcass condemnation. In commercial layers and breeder flocks, losses include higher than normal mortality rate, poor flock uniformity, drops in egg production and quality, poor hatchability, and poor day-old-chick quality. Despite the emergence of technology-based vaccines, such as inactivated, subunit, vector-based, DNA or RNA, and others, the attenuated live vaccines remain as important as before. Live vaccines are preferred in the global veterinary vaccine market, accounting for 24.3% of the global market share in 2022. The remaining 75% includes inactivated, DNA, subunit, conjugate, recombinant, and toxoid vaccines. The main reason for this is that live vaccines can induce innate, mucosal, cellular, and humoral immunities by single or multiple applications. Some live vaccine combinations provide higher and broader protection against several diseases or strains of viruses. This review aimed to explore insights on the pros and cons of attenuated live vaccines commonly used against major viral infections of the global chicken industry, and the future road map for improvement.

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