Poultry vaccines are very important tools for disease prevention and may be administered collectively by drinking water or spray or individually by injection or oculonasal drop, whereas inactivated vaccines are administered by injection only. Poultry vaccines are increasingly delivered at the hatchery to day-old chicks or in ovo, because mass vaccination is much more efficiently implemented and controlled at the hatchery than on the farm. Mass administration on the farm by drinking water or spray requires strict compliance with guidelines regarding water quality, preparation of vaccines, and application, so as to cover the whole flock. Vaccination at the hatchery uses integrated machines to deliver vaccines to day-old chicks or, increasingly, in ovo at transfer from setters to hatchers. Regardless of the route and technology, a high quality of monitoring is critically important to maintain strict compliance and best practices from the vaccine vial to the bird, to guarantee efficient administration and intake of the vaccine by the whole flock and to secure the integrity of the vaccine itself. Major recent technical innovations in poultry vaccination covering both biology and technology open a very exciting era.

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