Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes Pullorum disease (PD). PD is an acute systemic disease that affects young chickens, causing white diarrhea and high mortality. Although many sanitary programs have been carried out to eradicate S. Pullorum, PD outbreaks have been reported in different types of birds (layers, broilers, breeders) worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the evolution and genetic characteristics of S. Pullorum isolated from PD in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of S. Pullorum genomes sequenced in this study and available genomic databases demonstrated that all isolates from Brazil are from sequence type 92 (ST92) and cluster into two lineages (III and IV). ColpVC, IncFIC(FII), and IncFII(S) were plasmid replicons frequently found in the Brazilian lineages. Two resistance genes (aac(6’)-Iaa, conferring resistance to aminoglycoside, disinfecting agents, and antiseptics (mdf(A)) and tetracycline (mdf(A)) were detected frequently. Altogether, these results are important to understand the circulation of S. Pullorum and, consequently, to develop strategies to reduce losses due to PD.

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